Google Analytics

Google Analytics: Google Analytics is a web analytics service that provides statistics and basic analytical tools for search engine optimization (SEO) and marketing purposes. The service is part of the Google Marketing Platform and is available for free to anyone with a Google account.

Google Analytics is used to track website performance and collect visitor insights.

It works on elements as varied and vital as the following:

·         Number of visits

·         Their duration

·         Sources of traffic

·         Visited pages

It also acts in sections such as:

·         Your users preferred sections

·         Keywords used

·         Technical details of visitors’ devices. That would enter the browsers that users use or their mobile operating systems.

How do Google Analytics work?

The free Google Analytics tool collects data using a combination of cookies, browsers and the JavaScript code.

Its operation is based on three processes: the collection of data, the processing thereof and the creation of reports. 

1.- Data Collection

Google Analytics uses a JavaScript code to collect information from websites.

In order to understand the data collection, process we will explain it step by step:

1.       The server responds by sending the page that is requested to the user’s browser. In this way, once the browser analyses the data, it will contact other servers that will deal with some parts of the code of that requested page. This is how the Google Analytics Tracking code works.

2.       Next, the user’s browser that visits your page asks that code to Analytics. The platform is sent and saved in a file called Urchin.js. While the code is being executed, the previously commented attributes of the visitor and his navigation are studied.

3.       Once all the data has been collected, the code creates cookies on the visitor’s computer.

4.       When the cookies are already defined, the code sends all that information to the Google Analytics server by requesting an invisible GIF file.

5.       Then save the data in another file called File Logs and create a section of data in it for each page viewed. These data include aspects such as the date and time, the search engine where the visitor comes from, the number of visits, etc.

2.- Data Processing

·         Once the interactions of a user have been collected, Google Analytics begins the data processing to transform the raw data into useful data that gives you knowledge. To process them, each of the data sections is analysed separately. That is, their attributes are divided.

·         Google Analytics transforms each attribute into elements that it calls ‘fields’. In this way, for example, the IP address will become the “Visitor’s IP” field. Each section or line provides several attributes, and each of them is stored in different areas.

·         If you work with Google Analytics every day, it is likely that you have faced the definition of the attribution model that helps you extract value from the data. It is very important that you define the model very well, in this way you will improve the results.

3.- Settings

·         Google Analytics applies its settings (for example, filters) to raw data. When the data has been processed, it is stored in a database. Once processed and inserted into the database, it is no longer possible to modify them.

·         This way you can control how this data appears in the Analytics profiles that you have created in your account.

4.- Report generation

·         The resulting reports can be consulted either from the Google Analytics web service itself, or from other spaces for which it is necessary to use the reporting APIs.

·         Each report is created based on field comparisons. That is, aspects such as the visitor’s city or its conversion rate are taken into account.

·         Finally, once the data is stored in the database, the process is terminated.

Objectives in Google Analytics are

The 4 primary objectives in Google Analytics are:

1.       Destination: Define specific locations.

2.       Duration: Mark the length of a session.

3.       Pages/screens per session: It is the number of pages visited in the same session.

4.       Event: Activate an action that you have previously defined as an event.

7 attribution models in Google Analytics

Once you have set a goal, it is important to define the attribution model you are going to use. An attribution model is a system by which you will assign the contribution value to the objective of each of the channels that intervene in the customer experience.

The 7 attribution models that Google Analytics puts at your disposal are:

1.       Attribution of last interaction: In which 100% of the value of the conversion is attributed to the previous channel with which the client has interacted before making the conversion.

2.       Last indirect click: In this case, the total of the conversion value is attributed to the previous channel in which the customer has clicked before making the purchase.

3.       Last click of AdWords: Conversion is granted to the last ad in which the user clicked before making a conversion, regardless of whether or not he had previously clicked on other ads.

4.       First interaction: The conversion value is completely granted to the first channel with which the customer has interacted

5.       Linear attribution: Assigns the same credit to each channel interaction until the conversion occurs. Therefore, all points of contact have the same importance.

6.       Attribution of deterioration of time: A model that has a predetermined duration of 7 days. The point of contact that occurs seven days before the conversion receives half the value of the one that happens on the same day of the conversion. In addition, the value that takes place 14 days before gets a quarter of the attribution. And the action produced 30 days before receives the minimum attribution.

7.       Attribution according to the position: This is a hybrid model between the last interaction attribution model and that of the first interaction. Instead of attributing all the value to a single interaction, the one between the two is divided.


Important metrics in Google Analytic

A metric is a standard of quantitative measurement. Google Analytics enables users to track up to 200 different metrics to measure how their websites are performing. While some metrics may be more valuable to certain businesses than others, these are some of the most popular metrics:

1.       Users: A user is a unique or new visitor to the website.

2.       Bounce rate: The percentage of visitors who viewed only a single page. These visitors only triggered a single request to the Google Analytics server.

3.       Sessions: The group of visitor interactions that happen in a 30-minute window of activity.

4.       Average session duration: How long on average each visitor stays on the site.

5.       Percentage of new sessions: The percentage of website visits that are first-time visits.

6.       Pages per session: The average number of page views per each session.

7.       Goal completions: The number of times visitors complete a specified, desirable action. This is also known as a conversion.

8.       Page views: Total number of pages viewed.

Dimensions in Google Analytics

These are qualitative attributes or labels used to describe and organize data.

Dimensions can be customized in Google Analytics. Examples of common dimensions include:

·         language;

·         browser type;

·         city and country;

·         models of devices; and

·         user age group.




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